Original filename: Edward Bernays – Propaganda pdf. This PDF document has been generated by Version / Acrobat. @UberFR aux écrits de Edward Bernays (Propaganda) #CinéDesign http:// ?page=lyberplayer&id_article= I am reading the works of Edward Bernays, known as father of PR. In his work ” Propaganda” he described how to manipulate public opinion.
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More recently, Bernays is noted as the great-uncle of Netflix co-founder, Marc Randolph.
Propaganva best-known campaigns include a effort to promote female smoking by branding cigarettes as feminist ” Torches of Freedom ” and his work for the United Ecward Company connected with the CIA-orchestrated overthrow of the democratically elected Guatemalan government in Of his many books, Crystallizing Public Opinion and Propaganda gained special attention as early efforts to define and theorize the field of public relations.
Citing works of writers such as Gustave Le BonWilfred TrotterWalter Lippmannand his own double uncle Sigmund Freudhe described the masses as irrational and subject to herd instinct —and outlined how skilled practitioners could use crowd psychology and psychoanalysis to control them in desirable ways.
His great grandfather was Isaac Bernayschief rabbi of Hamburg. Bernays was a “double nephew” of Viennese psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud —by virtue of his mother, Freud’s sisterand of his father’s sister, Martha Bernays Freudwho married Sigmund.
The Bernays family moved from Vienna to the United States in the s. Ely Bernays became a grain exporter at the Manhattan Produce Exchange, then sent for his wife and children. He married Doris E. She was the first married woman to be issued a US passport without her husband’s last name. Later, however, she changed bsrnays mind and her name, becoming Doris Bernays. By all accounts, Fleischman played a major though quiet role in the Bernays public relations business—including ghost-writing numerous memos and speeches, and publishing a newsletter.
After graduating from Cornell, Bernays wrote for the National Nurseryman journal. He went to Paris and worked for Louis Dreyfus and Company reading grain cables.
By December of the same year he had returned to New York. They took editorial positions in favor of showers and against corsets and distributed free copies to thousands of physicians across the country. After publishing a positive review of the play, Propaagnda and Robinson wrote to its lead actor, Richard Bennett: You can count on our help.
After his foray into the world of theater, Bernays worked as a creative press agent for various performers and performances. Already, he was using a variety of techniques which would become hallmarks of his later practice. He promoted the Daddy Long Legs stage play by tying it in with the cause of charity for orphans. To create interest in Diaghilev’s Ballets Russeshe educated Americans about the subtleties of ballet—and publicized a picture of Flore Revalleswearing a tight-fitting dress, at the Bronx Zoo, posed with a large snake.
He built up Enrico Caruso as an idol whose voice was so sensitive that comically extreme measures were taken to protect it. Bernays, along with Lieutenant F. Ackerman, focused on building support for war, domestically and abroad, focusing especially on businesses operating in Latin America.
A scandal arose from his reference to propaganda in a press release. As reported by the New York Worldthe “announced object of the expedition is ‘to interpret the work of the Peace Conference by keeping up a propaganxa propaganda to disseminate American accomplishments and ideals. Bernays later described a realization that his work for the CPI could be also propagsnda used in peacetime:.
There was one basic lesson I learned propagand the CPI—that efforts comparable to those applied by the CPI to affect the propagamda of the enemy, of propaaganda, and people of this country could be applied with equal facility to peacetime pursuits.
In other words, what could be done for a nation at war could be done for organizations and people in a nation at peace. After returning edwadr New York, Bernays opened a public relations business.
In he published a book, ” Crystallizing Public Opinion “, outlining his profession, and taught a course at New Bdrnays University.
Both of these are considered firsts in the modern field of public befnays. Bernays, who pursued his calling in New York City from tostyled himself a “public relations counsel”.
He had very pronounced views on the differences between what he did and what people in advertising did. A pivotal figure in the orchestration of elaborate corporate advertising campaigns and multi-media consumer spectacles, he nevertheless is among those listed in the acknowledgments section of the seminal government social science study “Recent Social Trends in the United States” Bernays attempted to help Venida hair nets company to bdrnays women to wear their hair longer so they would use hairnets more.
The campaign failed but did get government officials to require hairnets for some jobs.
Едвард Бернајз — Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
The campaign successfully convinced people that Ivory soap was medically superior to other soaps. He also promoted soap through sculpting contests and floating hrvatsmi because proaganda soap floated better than competing products. Bernays used his uncle Sigmund Freud ‘s ideas to help convince the public, among other things, that bacon and eggs was the true all-American breakfast. In the s, his Dixie Cup campaign was designed to convince consumers that only disposable cups were sanitary by linking the imagery of an overflowing cup with subliminal images of vaginas and venereal disease.
He was publicity director for the New York World’s Fair. Another selection from his papers, the Typescript on Publicizing the Physical Culture Industry, Yet another client, department store visionary Edward A. Bernays’ Typescript on the Importance of Samuel Strauss: The event, which spanned across several major cities in the US, was designed to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Thomas Edison ‘s invention of the light-bulb though the light-bulb had been previously invented by Joseph Swan.
The publicity elements of the Jubilee — including the special issuance of a US postage stamp and Edison’s “re-creating” the invention of the light edwwrd for a nationwide radio audience — provided evidence of Bernays’ love for big ideas and ” ballyhoo “.
A follow-up event for the 75th anniversary, produced for television by David O. In Bernays set up a vaudeville “pancake breakfast” for Calvin Coolidge to change his stuffy image before the election. Newspapers reported enthusiastically that Coolidge had laughed.
A desperate Herbert Hoover consulted with Bernays a month before the presidential election. Bernays advised Hoover to create disunity within his opposition and to present an image of himself as an invincible hrvxtski. For example, he should tell Irish voters about his actions against the Italian mafia —and Italian voters about his plans to reform the police department.
To Jews he should appear as a committed opponent of the Nazis. He helped to name the President’s Emergency Committee for Employmentsuggesting this name as preferable to the “Committee for Unemployment”. In the s, some of his ideas and vision helped portray India as the most democratic republic ddward Asia by having the People’s Congress of India adapt a Bill of Rights.
Freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, and freedom of petition were added to the Constitution of India.
His campaign was considered successful because there was no violence at the convention. His campaign focused on the important contributions of African-Americans to Whites living in the South. Bernays also worked on behalf of many non-profit institutions and organizations. InBernays organized the publication of Freud’s Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis in the US, sending royalty money back to his uncle in Vienna.
His relationship with Freud was always in the forefront of his thinking and his counseling. InBernays worked briefly for Liggett and Myersmakers of Chesterfield cigarettes. He pulled a stunt against the competing brand, Lucky Strikewhich involved mocking sdward endorsements of opera singers who said Lucky Strikes were “kind to your voice”.
When he started working for American Tobacco Company, Bernays was given the objective of increasing Lucky Strike sales among women, who, for the most part, had formerly avoided smoking. Hrvataki first strategy was to persuade women to smoke cigarettes instead of eating. Bernays began by promoting the ideal of thinness itself, using photographers, artists, newspapers, and magazines to promote the special beauty of thin women.
Medical authorities were found to promote the choice of cigarettes over sweets. Home-makers were cautioned that keeping cigarettes on hand was a social necessity. The first campaign succeeded; women smoked more cigarettes; American Tobacco Company brought in more revenue; and Lucky Strike led the market in growth.
But a taboo remained on women smoking in public.
Bernays consulted with psychoanalyst Abraham Brilla student of Freud’s, who reported to him that cigarettes represented “torches of freedom” for women whose feminine desires were increasingly suppressed by their role in the pripaganda world. The event was carefully scripted to promote the intended message. Because it should appear as news with no division of the publicity, actresses should be definitely out. On the other hand, if propagandw women who stand for feminism—someone from the Women’s Party, say—could be secured, the fact that the movement would be advertised too, would not be bad.
While they should be goodlooking, they should not be too ‘model-y. Of course they are not to smoke simply as they come down the church steps. They are to join in the Easter parade, puffing away. The march went as planned, as did the ensuing publicity, with ripples of women smoking prominently across the country. InBernays was asked to deal with women’s apparent reluctance to buy Lucky Strikes because their green and red package clashed with standard female fashions.
When Bernays suggested changing the package to a neutral hrvztski, Hill refused, saying that he had already spent millions advertising the package. Bernays then endeavored to make green a fashionable color. The pretext for the ball and its unnamed underwriter was that proceeds would go to charity. Famous society women would attend wearing green dresses. Manufacturers and retailers of clothing and accessories were advised of the excitement growing around the color green.
Intellectuals were enlisted to give highbrow talks on the theme of green. Before the ball had actually taken place, newspapers and magazines encouraged in various ways by Bernays’s office had latched on to the idea that green was all the rage. Throughout the job, Bernays concealed the fact that he was working for the American Tobacco Company, and in fact succeeded in keeping his own name out of the affair as well.
Staff were instructed never to mention his name. Third parties were used, and various notable people received payments to promote smoking publicly as if on their own initiative. Bernays didn’t smoke cigarettes himself, and persistently but unsuccessfully tried to induce his wife Doris to quit.
Promote them he did, by linking bananas to good health and to American interests, and by placing them strategically in the hands of celebrities, in hotels, and other conspicuous places.
Bernays also argued that United Fruit needed to put a positive spin on the banana-growing countries themselves, and for this purpose created a front group called the Middle America Information Bureau, which supplied information to journalists and academics.
We recommend that immediate steps be undertaken to safeguard American business interests in Latin American countries against comparable action there.
News knows edwagd boundaries today. To disregard the possibilities of the impact of events one upon another is to adopt a head-in-the-sand-ostrich policy. He recommended a campaign in which universities, lawyers, and the US government would all condemn expropriation as immoral and illegal; the company should use media pressure “to induce the President and State Department to issue a policy pronouncement comparable to the Monroe Doctrine concerning expropriation.
A Bernays memo in July recommended that this wave of media attention should be translated into action by promoting:.