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Correlation study of plaque and gingival indexes of mothers and their children.
This study aimed to compare the periodontal condition between plaque and gingival indexes in 30 pairs of mother and child with mixed dentition, as well as to correlate the findings with some of their social and oral hygiene habits. Idnex and child’s gingibal and gingival indexes were recorded during clinical examination. Periapical and bitewing radiographs were taken in order to assess the presence of any pathologic bone loss.
Questionnaires answered by the mothers were used to collect information regarding the mother’s and the child’s habits of tooth hygiene and the mother’s job, instruction level and family income. The data collected from the mothers’ group and from the children’s group were statistically analyzed both separately and with the two groups together.
From the statistical analyses Pearson correlation test, student test and Covariance analysisit was possible to conclude that there was a greater correlation between the plaque and gingival indexes in the mothers’ group than amd the children’s group. No significant correlation between plaque and gingival indexes could be found between the pairs. Also, ooe loss and plaque and gingival indexes in the children did not show any correlation. The mothers’ plaque indexes increased with age and decreased when they flossed everyday and when they had a job.
The children’s plaque indexes were lower when they had their tooth hygiene done by their mothers, when the latter had declared that they flossed their children’s teeth everyday, and also when the mothers had a job.
Children’s gingival indexes increased with age and decreased when they brushed their teeth more often, when their mothers had a job and when their mothers declared they are used to flossing every day.
Periodontal disease; Plaque and gingival indexes; Oral hygiene habits; Mothers; Children. Periodontal disease is one of the main causes for tooth loss.
The Gingival Index, the Plaque Index and the Retention Index Systems.
Damage to tissues occurs due to an interaction of specific bacterial and host’s factors Bimstein, et al. The role of dental plaque as the primary etiologic agent in gingivitis has been demonstrated in classic studies of experimental gingivitis in adults Theilade, et al. Furthermore, a hormonal influence is strongly suggested on the gingival inflammatory process concomitant to pre-puberty and puberty Parfitt 17; Peretz, et al. During the mixed dentition, similar amounts of gingival inflammation are observed in permanent and deciduous teeth Matsson and Goldberg 14; Ramberg, et al.
Although the severity of gingivitis is less intense in children than in adults Mackler and Crawford 12; Matsson and Goldberg 14, periodontitis may occur in children and adolescents Albandar, et al.
However, very few studies correlated the clinical variables in pairs of mother igngival their children with mixed dentition, with reported habits. The aim of the present study was to assess the periodontal conditions in terms of plaque and gingival indexes and alveolar bone loss of mothers and children with mixed dentition.
The clinical findings were also correlated with reported social conditions and oral hygiene habits. The study group was formed by thirty pairs of mothers 29 to 49 years silnesa, mean The patients had not taken antibiotics at least for the last three months before the exam.
The procedures, possible discomforts or risks, as well as the benefits of this study were fully explained to the subjects involved, and their informed consent was obtained prior to the investigation.
Information about medical and dental history of each subject was obtained during the anamnesis. A dentist interviewed children’s mothers about their oral hygiene habits and social economical conditions using a questionnaire. Mothers who did not present first molars and incisors were excluded from the study group.
Periodontal Examination — Gingivitis and Plaque Grading
Deciduous teeth with more than one third of root resorption were not considered. One trained examiner performed the all clinical examination. Four surfaces per tooth buccal, lingual, mesial and distal were examined in every permanent and deciduous tooth except for third molars in the mothers group. Plaque and gingival indexes were calculated separately for every mother and child.
Two X-rays from molar region bitewing and two from the anterior region periapical were taken from each subject to assess the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the alveolar bone crest CEJ-ABC distance.
Pearson’s correlation test was done in order to determine the correlation between: The influence of some behavioral and social factors in plaque and gingival indexes incex mothers and children was assessed by using the covariance analysis tests. The mean values of plaque and gingival indexes from the children and their mothers are shown in Table 1. Correlation analysis between plaque and gingival indexes in the group of children C and in the group of mothers M are shown in Table 2.
Significant correlations between plaque and gingival indexes were found in both groups. No significant correlation between mother and child was obtained by analyzing the gingival index. The reported behavioral and social factors were correlated to plaque and gingival indexes of children and their mothers. The data obtained between these reported variables and Total Plaque Index and in Total Gingival Index the mothers group are shown in Gintival 4.
Gingivval variables that were associated to mother’s plaque index were mother’s age, frequency of flossing and the fact of having a job. The fact of having a job was the only significant variable that was associated to gingival index in the group of mothers.
The reported behavior and social status were also correlated to clinical indexes in children, and the results are shown in Table 5. Plaque Index in the children was correlated to variables such as mother’s frequency of flossing, mother’s support during child’s toothbrushing and mother’s having a job. Children’s Gingival Index was correlated to the variables mother’s frequency of flossing, mother with a job, children’s frequency of tooth brushing and children’s age.
Periodontal conditions in children have been a subject of researches for decades Bimstein and Ebersole 4; Matsson 13; Matsson and Goldberg 14; Parfit 17; Peretz, et al. However, very little is known about the correlation between the presence of periodontal disease in mothers and the establishment of gingival or periodontal disease in their children.
Löe and Silness Plaque Index (PI)
However, other factors such as hereditary immune response and behavioral factors including tooth cleaning habits should also contribute for the increased prevalence of periodontal disease in certain families. In the present study, a very homogeneous population with a well-limited age range was analyzed, differing from other studies in the literature Beaty, et al. Lower correlation values between plaque and gingival indexes were obtained in the group of children than in the group of mothers.
These findings are in agreement with Matsson and Goldberg 15 who reported less gingival inflammation in children than in adults in the presence of similar amounts of plaque accumulation, indicating a difference in the pathogenic potential of dental plaque or in the host response.
Significant correlation of plaque between mother-child was found only when “Total” low correlation or “Molar” moderate correlation plaque index was considered Table 3. The significant correlation for plaque index in molar region but not significant in the region of incisors may represent different abilities of plaque removal between mothers and children.
In the children’s group, the eventual absence of proximal contact in the region of incisors may have also contributed to a lower plaque index. Although the oldest children did not show the highest values for plaque accumulation, they exhibited the highest total gingival index values, indicating an increase in gingival reaction to dental plaque accumulation with age, as described in the literature Bimstein and Matsson 5; Matsson 13; Matsson and Goldberg 15 Only 3 subjects in the mothers group presented distances values higher than 5mm.
Other studies have also reported that supragingival plaque accumulation was not directly related to alveolar bone loss. In addition, preventive measures alone, aiming to control plaque accumulation, might not be effective in controlling destructive periodontal disease Albandar, et al. Declared family income or the socioeconomic class did not influence the oral health of the groups, in contrast to the results found in other studies MacGregor, Baldin 11; Tan, et al.
Although the social class was not homogeneous in the study group, it should be noticed that these subjects were seeking free treatment at the University. Mothers’ total gingival index was influenced by the fact of having a job. Those who reported that they worked outside home presented the lowest values for total gingival index. The reduced plaque and gingival indexes in these mothers may reflect an increased self-esteem, need for a better appearance and possibility of getting more information than those at home.
A lower total plaque index in the group of children was also demonstrated when their mother reported having a job.
Comparison of gingival index and sulcus bleeding index as indicators of periodontal status
These data contribute to the findings that dental health behavior appears to be a part of a person’s lifestyle and a significant association between self-esteem and toothbrushing frequency has already been reported MacGregor and Baldin 11 Regardless almost all parents usually consider tooth brushing as important for oral health, only 11 mothers reported helping the children in their oral hygiene.
A lower total plaque index in the group of children was demonstrated when the mothers helped the children to brush their teeth. As expected, parents’ supervision improved the quality of tooth cleaning. A Dutch study pointed out that a quarter of 12 years-old children were not supervised in their oral home care Petersen 20 In countries where high levels of caries reduction were achieved such in Denmark, three-quarters of the parents of 6 years old children answered that they believed children less than 10 years old need help from adults in toothbrushing Petersen 20 Total gingival index was decreased with an increase in frequency of children’s tooth brushing and when their mothers declared they are used to flossing everyday.
Children’s plaque index was also reduced when their mothers answered that they flossed “always”, showing that mother’s frequency of flossing may reflect their awareness of the importance of oral hygiene, which could be transmitted and stimulated in the children.
It has been long before when it was reported that children follow the example of their parents. Therefore, it is more effective to change behavior through the route of behavior itself than through the route of knowledge.
This information may be also useful to be aware that it is not very effective to direct the efforts in dental health education solely to the youngsters Tan, et al. Although no clinically significant correlation in plaque or periodontal indexes between mothers and their children could be found, mothers awareness to oral health, represented by anc and attention to child’s oral hygiene, was significantly correlated to children’s better oral health.
These data reinforce the need for family participation in oral health poe and not only school-based programs. Lack of effect of oral hygiene training on periodontal disease progression over three years in adolescents.
Effect of increased community and professional awareness of plaque control on the management xnd inflammatory periodontal diseases.
Familial aggregation of periodontal indices. The age-dependent reaction of periodontal tissues to dental plaque. Growth and development considerations in the diagnosis of gingivitis and periodontitis in children.
The composition of subgengival microflora in two groups of children with and without primary dentition alveolar bone loss.
Initial acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants: Transmission of oral Prevotella melanonogenica between a mother and her young child. Relationship between oral gram negative anaerobic bacteria in saliva of mother and the colonization of her edentulous infant.
The fidelity of initial acquisition of mutans streptococci gingiva, infants from their mothers. Periodontal disease in pregnancy I. Self-esteem as a predictor of tooth brushing behavior in young adolescents. Plaque development and gingivitis in the primary dentition. Development of gingivits in pre-school children and young adults. Gingival inflammatory reaction in children at different ages.
Silnesx inflammation at deciduous and permanent teeth. The relationship between an and colonization by porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in children.
A five year longitudinal study of the gingival conditions of a group of children in England. Changes in periodontal status ondex children and young adolescence: J Clin Pediatr Dent. Periodontal status in childhood and early adolescence: